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Charles W. Collinson
JUL 16 W*
9lUwib State Q&dcKfical Suaaj^
William G. Stratton, Governor
REGISTRATION and EDUCATION
Vera M. Binks, Director
ILLINOIS STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
3 3051 00004 7385
John C. Frye, Chief
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BEGINNING FOSSIL HUNTERS
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Printed by Authority of the sun- of Illinois
BEGINNING FOSSIL HUNTERS
Charles W. Collinson
v^BTOONG before your birth, long before your
fi/v/^ grandfather and grandmother were born,
g j%p : jeven before there were any men or the
r<fci ^Mississippi River existed, there were ani-
ViJ^r.7; v ^rnals on the earth.
You may ask, "If there were no men around to
see them, how do we know that there were animals
That question is pretty easy to answer, for the
animals left their marks behind and we call those
Some fossils are just foot tracks or worm holes.
Others were made when mud sifted into empty
shells and slowly turned to stone. Many bones or
shells, even some skin and hair, have been pre-
served in the rocks for millions of years.
Of course the rocks in ^SSSGSZ 35^
which the fossils are en- ^^*$WI/$
cased weren't always rocks.
At one time the sediments were just mud or sand
on the floor of the sea; some were sand dunes on
an ancient land. As time passed the sediments were
buried under more sand or mud, and with the pass-
ing of more time the sand and mud became rock.
The fossils in the rocks, however, are only a
small part of all the life that has existed on our
planet. For every fossil we see, millions of ani-
mals and plants have lived, died, and been destroyed
without leaving a trace. However, by carefully col-
lecting fossils and recording the layers of rocks
they came from, we can reconstruct hundreds of
generations that have lived on earth at one time or
another since the beginning.
Finding and collecting fossils not only helps to
write missing chapters of earth history but is also
an exciting adventure. It is an animal hunt - a hunt
for creatures often more strange than any living on
Your first fossil discovery will be a thrill. Later
you will find that a search through a quarry or a
strip mine is an excursion to an ancient seashore
or a plunge to the bottom of a long -vanished sea.
You also step into the past when you climb the
loess bluffs along our large rivers. You return to
the days when a great glacier invaded Illinois and
the rivers from the melting ice ran milky with rock
flour ground up beneath the scouring ice.
After the rock flour had settled and dried on the
river floodplains, it was swept aloft by the winds.
Huge dust storms swirling over the bluff s and near-
by uplands deposited the rock dust, called loess.
Snail shells were preserved in the loess but, except
for an occasional bone or tooth of a mammoth, most
of the plant and animal remains have disappeared.
In addition to outdoor adventure, a successful
hunt provides interesting trophies for your collec-
tions. Many of science's most valuable fossil finds
have been brought in by amateur hunters.
WHAT ARE FOSSILS?
A fossil is some evidence of a prehistoric ani-
mal or plant, preserved in rock, that gives a clue
to the characteristics of the organism. The remains
of animals or plants that lived during historic time
are not considered fossils.
The oldest fossils in Illinois are found in rocks
such as sandstone, limestone, or shale. Some are
only impressions of the outside of a shell; some
are fillings of the inside.
Parts of the original shell may be preserved, but
in many fossils the hard parts of the animal have
been replaced by a material different from that of
the original. Silica and calcium carbonate, which
are easily preserved, commonly replace the ori-
ginal shell material.
Some fossils were made by marine worms which
burrowed in the sand or mud of the sea floor. The
worms themselves are rarely found as fossils but
their trails and holes are common. The burrows
and holes are fossils just as much as the animals
themselves would be if they had been preserved.
In many places in Illinois, shells of clams, snails,
and brachiopods are preserved with little change
and are much as they were the day they were buried
on the floor of a now-vanished sea.
The plant-fossil materials that make up the coal
beds of Illinois are the remains of primitive trees
and plants that lived in swamps during the Coal Age.
When the plants died they fell into the water and
were preserved as peat that later became coal.
Many fine fossils found in the coal and overlying
shales represent the roots, trunks, and leaves of
the plants. A few of the insects that lived in the
trees also are preserved.
Among the youngest fossils found in Illinois are
the teeth and bones of bison, giant beavers, deer,
and elephant-like animals called mammoths and
mastodons, which lived during the Ice Age. Com-
plete skeletons of the animals are rare, but teeth
and tusks are on exhibit in many museums.
(After drawing by Charles R. Knight)
WHERE TO LOOK FOR FOSSILS
1. Quarries are excellent places to find fossils
because so much rock is exposed. Old abandoned
quarries are best for collecting because the rocks
have been weathered for several years and the fos-
sils generally stand out in relief.
If you plan to collect in a quarry, be sure to get
permission to enter it. In that way someone will
know where you are in case of accident. In active
quarries there is danger from falling rock during
blasting. If the quarryman doesn't know you are in
the quarry, he cannot warn you when he is going to
set off a blast.
2. Some of the best collecting sites in Illinois
are in the cliffs and bluffs along our major rivers,
the Mississippi, Illinois, Ohio, Wabash, and their
tributaries. At these places whole fossils are often
weathered out and may be picked up easily.
3. Well-known collecting sites for plant fossils
are the coal strip mines of Illinois. Perhaps the
most famous is the Mazon Creek area near Braid-
wood in northeastern Illinois which has supplied
beautifully preserved impressions of ferns, tree
leaves, and a few insects to museums throughout
the world. Many strip mines also yield fine brach-
iopods, snails, clams, and cephalopods.
4. Highway cuts through bedrock commonly ex-
pose beds containing fossils. Be careful along road
cuts, especially if there is heavy traffic.
5. Ice Age fossils, such as mammoth and mas-
todon teeth and tusks, have been found mostly in
gravel pits but also in foundation excavations and
ditches in all parts of the State.
6. Most of Illinois' major rivers have banks of
wind-blown glacial dust called "loess." The shells
of air-breathing snails which lived during the Ice
Age are common in the loess.
7. Actuallyyou canfind fossils almost anywhere,
in the gravel or crushed stone of your driveway or
in stone walls and foundations. You may see fossils
in many places where you can't collect them, such
as counter tops in restaurants, utility marble in
public buildings, in stone sidewalks in several of
our older cities, or in riprap along the shores of
Lake Michigan and our major rivers.
TOOLS FOR COLLECTING FOSSILS
1. Hammer - a bricklayer's hammer will work
2. One or two cold chisels, preferably one large
and one small.
3. Knapsack or basket in which to carry your
4. Old newspapers or a roll of tissue paper for
protecting fragile specimens.
5. Magnifying glass or hand lens, 3 to 10 power.
6. Pencils and paper for labeling the specimens.
Much of the value of a particular fossil lies in know-
ing where it was found and the bed it came from. It
is important to keep records of your collecting.
TIPS ON COLLECTING FOSSILS
1. When you look for specimens in a quarry or
on a shale slope, sit down or get on your hands and
knees and look carefully. Spend some time in one
spot before you move on to another. Excellent fos-
sils have be en found in places that others had passed
over many times.
2. If you find a good fossil embedded in rock and
you are not certain that you can get it out without
breaking or destroying it, don't spoil the fossil. If
you leave it, the wind and weather may help loosen
the fossil from the rock by your next visit.
3. If you do decide to chisel a fossil from the
rock, be patient and take your time. If possible,
chisel a narrow trough around the fossil, taking
care always to point the chisel away from the spe-
cimen. When the trough is as deep as the fossil, or
deeper, strike the base of the pillar you have made
and the fossil should pop out.
4. Where the rock is very fossiliferous, it may
pay you to take small blocks of rock and break them
into pieces with your hammer. In the process the
rock tends to break around the fossils. If there are
enough fossils in the rock, you probably will get
some unbroken specimens.
Involutina 40 X
Thurammina 40 X
Schwagerina 6 X
COMMON TYPES OF ILLINOIS FOSSILS
FORAMINIFERA (for-am-i-nif-er-ah, plate 1).
Foraminifera are very small one -celled animals,
commonly called "forams
They are important to
geologists, who use
them to identify oil-
_,, , ..- , Fusilina A Foraminifer
They are beautiful- .. ... , ._ 4 . Iin v ,
3 Magnified 10 times (10 X)
ly shaped little shells,
but you will be able to see them clearly only with
a magnifying glass or hand lens. Some are calcium
carbonate, others are made of tiny sand grains ce-
mented together with silica.
Some foraminifera make their shells of parts
that come from the skeletons of other animals.
Some kinds are so particular about the kind of
materials they use that they select only grains of
a certain color and size.
Foraminifera live in tremendous numbers in the
seas today. They lived as far back as the Ordovician
period, more than 400 million years ago (see the
Geologic Time Chart, page 2).
Calcareous foraminifera such as Endothyra (en-
doh-thy-rah, plate 1) are very abundant in Illinois
in the Salem limestone, which occurs in the bluffs
of the Mississippi River near the end of Mc Adams
highway northwest of Alton and in the bluff s of Mon-
roe and Randolph counties. The Salem limestone
also crops out near Anna and Jonesboro in southern
Another kind of calcareous foraminifer, Fusilina
(few-sil-eye-nah), is very common in rocks of
Pennsylvanian age throughout Illinois. The little
fossils look like grains of wheat and are so abun-
dant in some limestones and shales that they can be
collected by the thousands.
For a list of localities where foraminifera are
abundant, see pages 162-167 of Illinois Geological
Survey Bulletin 67.
SPONGES (plate 1). Sponges are mainly marine
animals that live attached to the sea floor. Fossil
They are not
and I know,
have a hard
oldest ones are known from Cambrian rocks and
are about 550 million years old.
One fossil sponge, called the "sunflower coral,"
is common in the Ordovician rocks of north -central
and northwestern Illinois.
Another, called Hindi a , is found in Silurian rocks
exposed in quarries in the Chicago region. It looks
like a small round ball but, when broken, is seen to
be made of thousands of radiating rods of calcium
.:W- -£'.•;■ '\ ft F i?± K
CORALS (plate 2). Corals are small brightly
colored marine animals that look much like flow-
ers. The animal
grows an external
on the inside
which divide the
body into cham-
bers. The animal
itself is called a
polyp and the
skeleton is called
live together in
colonies made up of
hundreds of individuals,
attached to each other by their outer skeletal walls.
They sometimes form coral reefs hundreds of miles
The skeletons of solitary polyps maybe cushion-,
horn-, or tube -shaped, each with a depression in the
top in which the animal lived. The solitary corals
are referred to as horn or cup corals.
In colonial forms the skeletons may be either
branching or closely packed and massive. Corals
live only where the seas are warm and shallow.
They are very numerous in today's tropical seas.
The animals have been common throughout geolo-
gic timesothat it is easy to collectfine specimens.
Fossil corals are most common in limestone,
where they sometimes make up a large part of the
rock, but they also are found in shale and sand-
Stomatopora 18 X
Streptelasma 2 /3 x
Lithostrotionella 1/2 X
Lophophyllum I X
BRYOZOA (bri-o-zoh-ah, plate 2). The tiny col-
onial animals called bryozoa generally build stony
skeletons of calcium carbonate.
A Mississippian Bryozoan
The fronds are commonly called Fenestefla.
They grow in a variety of shapes and patterns,
mound-shaped, lacy, tree-shaped, or even screw-
shaped. Each skeleton has numerous tiny holes,
each of which is the home of a minute animal. They
live attached to the sea floor, to stones, or to other
Bryozoa are very common as fossils. The oldest
ones come from Cambrian rocks about 500 million
years old, and their descendants live today.
During the Mississippian period bryozoa were
so common that their broken skeletons formed en-
tire limestone beds. Fossil bryozoa may be found
either in shales or limestones and they occur
Lepidocyclus 2/3 X
Paraspirifer 2/3 X
Herbertella 1/2 X
Leptaena I X
Platystrophia 2/3 x
BRACHIOPODS (brack-e-o-pods, plates 3 and 4).
Brachiopods are marine animals that have two
shells, an upper one
and a lower one. The
right and left halves
of each shell are mir-
ror images but the two
shells are not exact-
ly alike. The shells
may be of lime, phos-
phate, or a horny sub-
stance, and they range
in size from less than
1/4 inch to several
Most brachiopods live attached to the seafloor by
a fleshy stalk that is an extension of the soft body.
Some forms lose the stalk when they become adults
and either attach themselves directly to the sea
floor or lie loose in the mud or sand. Some have
spines that serve as anchors.
Brachiopods are not common in most oceans
today, but at times in the past they were the most
abundant shellfish and sometimes formed large
shell banks much as oysters do today.
The oldest fossil brachiopods are found in Cam-
brian rocks which are about 550 million years old.
However, the animals became abundant in Ordovi-
cian time and remained so throughout the Paleozo-
In Illinois, the fossils are especially common and
well preserved in the Mississippian limestone and
shales of the Ohio. and Mississippi river bluffs, but
you can find them easily in almost any part of the
Marine Worm Jaw
MARINE WORM JAWS (plate 5). Marine worm
jaws are easily preserved and are known in nearly
every geologic system. Most of
them are composed of chitin (fin-
gernail material). They are black
and shiny and have many teeth.
Sea worms live today and the fos-
sil record of worm trails goes
back to the pre -Cambrian period. The oldest worm
jaws are found inOrdovician rocks. They are com-
mon in the Silurian rocks of northeastern Illinois.
GASTROPODS (gas-troh-pods, plate 5). Gastro-
pods commonly are called snails. The snail carries
its shell on its back and retreats into it whenever
danger threatens. As a snail grows larger it expands
and lengthens the
shell. Most com-
monly the shell
is coiled in a
spiral, but some
are shaped like
a Chinese coolie
There are many
kinds of gastro-
pods. Some live
in the sea, some :j3 *
live in rivers,'-.-/ ^^
and still others -^Msfig^
live on land. The Modern Marine Gastropods
ones that live in water have gills like fish, but those
thatbreathe air have simple lungs. Gastropods have
a distinct head, feelers, eyes, and a mouth. Some
have a rasp-like tongue. The snail uses its tongue
for boring into other shellfish which it eats.
Lumbriconereites 10 X
lldraites 20 X
Arabellites 20 X
Oenonites 10 X
Snails are common as fossils in the Ordovician
and Pennsylvanian rocks of Illinois. Snails that
lived during the Ice Age are abundant in the loess
in places along the bluffs of the major rivers and
may be recovered by washing the loess through a
The oldest snails lived during the Cambrian pe-
riod, more than 550 million years ago.
Straight Ordovician Cephalopod
CEPHALOPODS (sef-a-lo-pods, plate 6). Ceph-
alopods have beenfound as fossils in rocks of many
ages, and many are alive today. Squids, octopuses,
cuttlefish, and the pearly nautilus are among the
cephalopods presently living in the seas.
Cephalopods are the most advanced of all animals
without backbones. They have a highly developed
nervous system with eyes much like human eyes.
The cephalopod 1 s mouth is surrounded by long
tentacles commonly armed with suckers. Beneath
the tentacles is a tube through which the animal
can force a jet of water and thus move about by
, ,. ., 9/ v Endolobus 2/ 3 x
Lechntrochoceras *■/■$ X
Imitoceras 2/3 X
Coiled cephalopods live today only in the South
Pacific but in the geologic past they were scattered
throughout the world. Modern squids live in shal-
low coastal waters over much of the globe.
Most of the ceph-
alopods we find as
fossils had a calcar
eous outer shell.
Some were loosely
coiled, some tightly
coiled, and others
shaped like a
As the shelled ====
forms grew, they *—#
new and larger shell Modern Co,led Cephalopod
chambers to fit their bodies and sealed off the old
part of their shells with a wall of pearly calcareous
material - hence the name, "chambered nautilus."
During the Ordovician period, about 450 million
years ago, some straight cephalopods grew to be
as long as 19 feet, although most were much short-
er. Straight cephalopods were common in Ordovi-
cian and Silurian time; coiled ones became fairly
common only by Later Paleozoic times. We find
both in the Pennsylvanian rocks of Illinois.
PELECYPODS (pe-les-i-pods, plate 7). Pelecy-
pods include oysters, clams, mussels, and cockles.
They have been found in the oldest marine rocks
known and still are very numerous in the seas and
rivers today. Many of our pearl buttons are made
from Mississippi River clam shells.
Myalina 2/3 x
Clionychia 2 /3*
Aviculopecten 2/3 *
Most pelecypods have two shells which are mir-
ror images of each other, one on the right and one
on the left. Each shell has a beak that points for-
ward and represents the spot where the shell be-
gan to grow. The top edge of each shell commonly
has several teeth and sockets that fit into those of
the opposite shell to make a hinge. The outside of
the shell generally is ornamented by ribs, spines,
and growth lines.
:: : ^^
A Modern Pelecypod
Most pelecypods form shell banks in the seas or
rivers, on sand and mud flats. Many burrow into the
mud or sand, and even into wood or rock. Some oy-
sters attach themselves to rocks and others creep
about the sea floor by means of a hatchet-shaped
foot thrust between the open valves. A few (scallops)
move by jet propulsion, opening the two valves slow-
ly and snapping them shut to force the water out in
a jet stream.
Fossil clams are common in some Pennsylvanian
rock formations in central Illinois and in some Or-
dovician limestones in northern and western Illinois.
Isoflus l/ 3 X
TRILOBITES (try-lo-bites, plate 8). Trilobites
have been extinct for more than 200 million years.
They often are pre-
served ingreat de-
tail and are prized
as fossils. Two
down the back of
the animal divide
it into three lobes,
hence the name
Trilobites had a
head with eyes and a mouth, a jointed body, and a
tail. The animals were cousins of the crabs and
lobsters and lived in the sea.
They were covered with a horny armor, jointed
so the animal could move. Trilobites shed their
armor much as snakes shed their skins, so each
animal could have provided several fossils.
Trilobites were abundant in Cambrian, Ordovi-
cian, and Silurian times and were among the most
important animals then on earth. They became ex-
tinct during Permian time.
OSTRACODES (os-trah-cods, plate 3). Ostra-
codes are very small animals which are common
as fossils but are rarely large enough to be seen
by the naked eye.
They have been present on earth since the early
part of the Ordovician period, and occur today in
great numbers in lakes, rivers, and seas. Ostra-
codes prefer shallow water and live in vast hordes,
crawling over the bottom or swimming near the
They have two shells, one on each side of the
body, so that some ostracodes look much like small
Tetragraptus I X
Dendrograptus 40 X „ o/ocys „ 7es y^ BLASTOIDS
Crinoid Columnals IX
Pentremites 2/ 3 X
clams. But the animal inside looks much like a
shrimp or an insect with jointed legs and feelers.
As the animal grows, it sheds its shells and forms
a new pair. The shells maybe smooth or ornament-
ed with pits, bumps, ribs, or spines
plate 9). Crinoids
are called "sea
lilies," but they
are animals ra-
ther than plants.
They look like
because the body
skeleton or calyx
generally is on
the end of a stem
made of button -
like discs and held on the sea floor either by a stony
anchor or root-like arms. The mouth, on top of the
body, is surrounded by arms which sweep food into
the mouth. The body is made of calcareous plates
which fit together like irregular bricks.
When the animal dies, the plates and discs tend
to fall apart and sink to the sea floor. Many of the
limestone beds in Illinois are composed mostly of
crinoid plates and discs.
The complete calyx is a highly prized fossil. Good
ones are found in the limestone cliffs along the Mis-
sissippi River between Burlington and Alton.
Stems or stemdiscs are common throughout most
of Illinois and popularly are called "Indian beads"
or "fish bones." The oldest crinoids come from Or-
dovician rocks. Some crinoids live today, mainly
in deep parts of the ocean, but they are not nearly
so common as in the past.
BLASTOIDS (blas-toyds, plate 9). Blastoid fos-
sils commonly are called "sea buds." They are
closely related to crinoids but differ from crinoids
in that instead of arms they had small hair -like
pinnules which swept food into the mouth. The soft
pinnules rarely were preserved.
Some blastoids had stems but others did not and
were attached directly to the sea floor. Like cri-
noids, they had a mouth at the top of the body (calyx)
surrounded by small round holes that conducted
water into the body.
The oldest blastoids, found in Ordovician rocks,
lived about 450 million years ago. The animals sur-
vived until the Permian period, about 225 million
years ago, when they became extinct. Blastoids are
beautiful fossils which look much like small hickory
They most commonly are found in the river cliffs
and stream banks of western and southwestern Illi-
nois, especially in Randolph County, and in southern
Illinois near the Ohio River.
CYSTOIDS (sis-toyds, plate 9). Cystoids are re-
lated to the crinoids and blastoids but are more
primitive than either. The body, or calyx, is not
nearly so well developed and the arms are irregu-
lar and rarely preserved. Nearly all cystoids are
stemless and the body plates are quite irregular
The cystoids lived from the Ordovician period,
400 million years ago, until the Mississippian per-
iod, 300 million years ago.
Most cystoids found in Illinois come from quar-
ries in the Silurian rocks in the Chicago region and
in the Mississippi River bluffs of northwestern Il-
(grap -toe -lite s,
plate 9). The grap-
tolites were a very
simple kind of ma-
rine animal that
appeared in the
They became abun-
dant in Ordovician
and Silurian time
but gradually died out,
The last ones lived during the Mississippian period.
The animals lived in tiny chitinous cups arranged
along slender stems. In some forms the stem was
attached to a round float, and in others two, three,
or four stems might be attached together. Most
graptolites floated free in the oceans and were
scattered throughout the world.
As fossils, they look like little black lines with
saw-tooth edges. They are found mainly in shales
but also occur in limestones. In Illinois they are
most common in Ordovician rocks of the northern
part of the State.
plate 10). Conodonts are
small fossils which bare-
ly can be seen by the na-
ked eye. Almost nothing is
known about the animal
these beautiful amber-colored tooth-like little fos-
sils came from.
Even though we don't know much about them, co-
nodonts are of value because they help geologists
determine the age of the rocks in which they are
Conodont (40 x
Lepidodendron 2/5 X
Annularia 2/5 x
Mammoth tooth i/gX
Mastodon tooth '/ 6 X
Conodonts of the same type are found over much
of the world in rocks of the same age, leading us to
believe that the animal was a good swimmer and
could cover great distances. Because of this, we
think these fossils may be those of an extinct fish.
Conodonts have been found in rocks ranging from
the Cambrian to the Trias sic. They are found in
bedrock formations throughout Illinois.
(plate 10). Of all the fos-
sils that have been found
in Illinois, perhaps none
are more famous than the
fossil leaves and other
plant remains from the
Creek area in northeast-
In this area, which lies
in Grundy and Will coun-
ties, iron carbonate nod-
ules containing plant re-
mains are found in the
waste piles of strip and
underground mines and at
places along Mazon Creek.
The plant fossils are
remains of fast-growing
ferns and trees. In the
damp lowlands and swamps that covered Illinois dur -
ing the Coal Age, they formed a dense growth and
were preserved in our coal beds.
In the jungle -like growth the plants most common
were huge ferns that had fronds five or six feet
long and grew to a height of more than 50 feet. Along
with them were seed ferns, now extinct, and giant
scouring rushes, descendants of which are the small
horsetail rushes that live today along our wooded
streams. You can recognize scouring rushes by their
jointed trunks and the leaf whorls, common in the
Mazon Creek nodules.
The most imposing plants of the Coal Age forests
were the scale trees, which grew to heights of 100
feet or more. Close-set leaves grew on their trunks
and limbs, and when the leaves fell off they left rows
of scars that are the identifying marks for the trees.
Diagonal rows of scars identify the Lepidodendron
and vertical rows identify the Sigi/laria.
VERTEBRATE FOSSILS (plate 10). Animals
with backbones are called vertebrates. They include
reptiles, amphibians, fish, birds, and mammals.
In many western states, vertebrate fossils, such
as skeletons of dinosaurs, camels, and saber-toothed
tigers, are common inMesozoic and Cenozoic rocks
(see Geologic Time Chart, page 2).
IfMesozoic and Cenozoic rocks were ever depos-
ited in Illinois, they have been removed by erosion.
As a result, the vertebrate fossils found in our
State are restricted to Paleozoic and Pleistocene
The Paleozoic vertebrate fossils are fish teeth,
scales, and bony plates, a few lizards, and amphi-
bians. The Pleistocene vertebrates included many
forms now extinct, such as mammoth and mastodons,
and many forms still living in this region, including
BOOKS ABOUT FOSSILS
FIRST BOOK OF PREHISTORIC
ANIMALS. Alice Dickinson. Frank-
lin Watts, Inc., New York, 1954.
A beautiful little book for grade
school age. Well written and well
HOW THE WORLD BEGAN. Edith
Heal. Thomas S. Rockwell Co.,
The story of the beginning of life
on earth. For advanced grades
through high school.
THE STORY OF OUR ANCESTORS.
May Edel. Little, Brown and Co.,
Tells how man grew into the
strange upright creature that he is
with nimble fingers and giant brain.
For junior high and high school.
LIFE LONG AGO. Carroll Lane
Fenton. The John Day Co., New
One of the very best books for
advanced grade and junior high.
STORIES READ FROM THE ROCKS.
Bertha Morris Parker. Basic Sci-
ence Education Series. Row, Pet-
erson and Co., Evanston, 111., 1942.
Advanced grade and junior high.
ANIMALS OF YESTERDAY. Bertha
Morris Parker. Basic Science Ed-
ucation Series. Row, Peterson and
Co., Evanston, 111., 1948.
Advanced grade and junior high.
COMMON FOSSILS OF MISSOURI.
A. G. Unklesbay, University of Mis -
souri Bulletin, Handbook 4, Colum-
bia, Mo., 1955.
OHIO FOSSILS. A. LaRocque and
M. F. Marple. Ohio Division of
Geological Survey Bulletin 54,
Columbus, Ohio, 1955.
A popular account of fossils
written especially for the amateur.
It has several keys for identifica-
tion of fossils.
LIFE OF THE PAST. G. G. Simp-
son. Yale University Press, New
Haven, Conn., 1953.
A broad and very readable in-
troduction to the study of fossils.
PREHISTORIC ANIMALS. William
E. Scheele. World Publishing Co.,
Cleveland, Ohio, 1954.
A beautifully illustrated book for
THE WORLD WE LIVE IN. Time,
Inc. (distributed by Simon and
Schuster, Inc., New York), 1955.
A superb general survey of the
world of nature. Two chapters are
devoted to life of the past.
DINOSAUR BOOK. E. H. Colbert,
American Museum of Natural His-
tory, New York, 1945.
Excellent popular summary of
our knowledge of dinosaurs. For
all age levels .
HANDBOOK OF PALEONTOLOGY
FOR BEGINNERS AND AMATEURS
Winifred Goldring. New York State
Museum, Albany, N. Y., 1929.
A summary of paleontology for
FIELDBOOK OF ILLINOIS LAND
SNAILS. Frank Collins Baker. II-
linois Natural History Survey Man-
ual 2, Urbana, 111., 1934.
A beautifully illustrated booklet
that will aid in identifying most
INTRODUCTION TO HISTORICAL
GEOLOGY. R.C. Moore, McGraw-
Hill Book Co., New York, 1949.
A general account of earth his-
tory and organic evolution. Adult
AN INTRODUCTION TOPALEON-
TOLOGY. A. Morley Davis. Thomas
Murby and Co., London, 1947.
A somewhat simplified outline
of the major fossil groups.
MAN AND THE VERTEBRATES.
A. S. Roemer, University of Chi-
cago Press, Chicago, 1941.
A well illustrated introduction
to living and fossil vertebrates.
ANCIENT PLANTS AND THE
WORLD THEY LIVE IN. H. N.An-
drews. Comstock Publishing Co.,
Ithaca, N. Y., 1947.
PRINCIPLES OF INVERTEBRATE
PALEONTOLOGY. R. R. Shrock
and W. H. Twenhofel. McGraw-Hill
Book Co., New York, 1953.
Technical college-level textbook.
INVERTEBRATE FOSSILS. R. C.
Moore, Cecil Lalicker, and A.
Fischer. McGraw-Hill Book Co.,
New York, 1953.
College text. Well illustrated.
INDEX FOSSILS OF NORTH AM-
ERICA. H. H. Shimer and R. R.
Shrock. John Wiley and Sons, New
Useful for the identification of
most invertebrate fossils.
EDUCATIONAL EXTENSION PROGRAM
The Educational Extension Division of the Illinois
State Geological Survey contacts the public through
a number of channels, including nontechnical pub-
lications, rock and mineral collections for Illinois
schools and educational groups, lectures, exhibits ,
correspondence involving identification of rocks
and minerals, news items for the press, and field
During each year six field trips aregiven, in wide-
ly separated parts of the State, for teachers, stu-
dents, and laymen. The general program is espe-
cially designed to assist in teaching the earth sci-
ences and help make Illinois citizens aware of the
State's great mineral wealth.
Illinois State Geological Survey
£di4axtkmal £>&tie& 4 25 cetdd,